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Monday, December 27, 2010

An Overview of Halo Chemicals

Halochemicals are compounds that contain halogens, one of the group of elements that includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and the as-yet undiscovered ununseptium (the existence of the latter element has been shown, but it has not yet been synthesized).

Chemical and Physical Properties of Halogens and Halochemicals

All of the elements in the halogen group are characterized by their extremely high state of reactivity. All halogen atoms have an outer shell that contains seven electrons, and therefore is one electron short of being a full shell. This means that halogen atoms can gain the electron by reacting with other elements, which in turn makes halogens extremely reactive.

This high reactivity means that it is extremely rare to find halogens in their pure elemental form outside the laboratory. In nature, halogens are typically found as halide salts, and all "pure" halogens commonly exist as diatomic molecules, meaning that two atoms of a given halogen are bonded together.

Fluorine, for example, is so highly reactive that it can form compounds with several of the heavier noble gases, which are well-known for being largely inert. The only elements that fluorine cannot react with are the highly inert light noble gases helium, neon, and argon. Fluorine can also attack other types of inert material, such as glass.

All halogens can form compounds with hydrogen, each forming a strong acid called a hydrogen halide. Halogens can also react with each other, forming compounds called interhalogens.

Halogens are also used to create halocarbons. These are substances with one or more carbon atoms that are linked with one or more halogen atoms. The chemical reaction between carbon and halogen atoms produces strong chemical bonds called covalent bonds, which are not easily broken once formed.

Past and Present Uses of Halochemicals

Halochemicals have an extremely wide range of uses, and fluorochemicals alone are used in a variety of different ways.

Halocarbons have been used as solvents, adhesives, sealants, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and refrigerants, and have been used to create plastics and plasticizers (meaning they are added to substances to increase certain desirable physical properties).

Some halochemicals that were once widely utilized are no longer in use, due to concerns over toxicity, or environmental issues. Examples include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as Freon, many types of fluorocarbons (which were once commonly used industrial solvents, but now have a much more limited range of uses), and solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethane, which were once available for public use but are now tightly regulated.

Two particularly well-used halogens are chlorine and fluorine, both of which are added to drinking water in many countries-chlorine as an antibacterial and antifungal agent, and fluorine (in the form of fluoride) to strengthen tooth enamel and help prevent tooth decay.

Many substances-including pharmaceuticals, and agricultural substances such as pesticides and herbicides-also benefit in terms of factors such as stability and potency from the addition of one or more halogen atoms. The addition of a halogen is carried out in a process called halogenation (this process can actually be done in several different ways, each involving a series of specific chemical steps). In many cases, the halogen added is fluorine.

In fact, fluorine is a component of a surprisingly large percentage of modern pharmaceuticals. The addition of fluorine atoms increases the stability and potency of many drugs, and fluorine is currently added to a wide variety of pharmaceuticals, including anesthetics, antacids, antifungal and antibiotic medicines, antidepressants, steroids, cholesterol lowering agents, and anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs.

An Overview of Specialty Fluorochemicals

Fluorine has a number of chemical properties that make it particularly desirable for a wide variety of different industrial, commercial, and even medical applications. In particular, it is the most electronegative and the most highly reactive of all the elements, and readily forms compounds with all elements except for the three lightest noble gases. One particularly useful property of fluorine is that it forms strong and stable covalent bonds with carbon.

Due to these important and highly useful chemical properties, specialty fluorochemicals have numerous applications in a range of industries. The addition of fluorine or fluorine substituents improves the desirable qualities of an amazingly wide variety of compounds including pharmaceuticals, plastics, elastomers, and surfactants.

One of the most well-known uses of fluorine is the addition of fluoride to drinking water and toothpastes, to strengthen tooth enamel and help prevent tooth decay. There are many more highly specific uses of fluorine and specialty fluorochemicals, most of which are concentrated in the industrial, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries.

Types and Uses of Specialty Fluorochemicals

Agricultural Uses: The addition of fluorine to many agricultural herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides improves the potency and therefore reduces the required application rate of these substances.

Photoresists: These polymers are used in semiconductor lithography. The addition of fluorine or fluorinated substituents to photoresists improves desirable chemical and physical properties.

Surfactants: Fluorine is a key component of surfactants and related compounds such as stain repellants.

Dyes: Adding fluorine or fluorinated substituents to many dyes improves their chemical and light resistance, and also their fixation yield.

Liquid Crystals: Adding fluorine to liquid crystal for use in display devices improves desirable chemical and physical properties such as the viscosity and miscibility of the liquid.

Plastics and Elastomers: With the addition of fluorine, these substances become more chemically and thermally stable. Due to these desirable properties fluoroplastics and fluoroeslastomers are used in a variety of ways, including in wiring insulation, gaskets and seals, hoses, and laboratory equipment.

Ion-Exchange Membranes: The use of fluorinated polymers allows ion-exchange membranes to be used in harsh environments, as the addition of fluorine improves the chemical and thermal stability of the membranes.

Custom-made Fluorochemicals: One particularly advantageous aspect of fluorine is that it can be added to a wide variety of chemical substances to increase stability, potency, and other desirable qualities. This means it is often possible to create custom-made specialty fluorochemicals.

A Closer Look at Fluorocarbons

Fluorocarbons are a particular type of fluorochemicals in which fluorine atoms are covalently bonded to carbon atoms in varying numbers and configurations. These covalent bonds are strong and stable, and this has been a major reason for the widespread of use fluorocarbons for a variety of applications. Fluorocarbons have been used as lubricants, propellants, refrigerants, solvents, and in water and stain-repellent products.

Concern over the slow environmental degradation of fluorocarbons has led to reduced usage of many of these substances. Some, such as carbon tetrachloride, were once available for public use, but are now much more tightly regulated. Most fluorocarbon solvents now have a much more limited range of industrial uses.

Some fluorocarbons (such as Freon) have a particularly bad reputation, however, due to their use as refrigerants and propellants. These have commonly contained chlorine in addition to fluorine. While the strong fluorine-carbon bonds make these substances highly resistant to environmental degradation, the addition of chlorine makes them highly reactive and destructive to the earth’s ozone layer. For this reason, the use of chlorofluorocarbons has been largely discontinued.

Despite environmental concerns, some fluorocarbons (such as fluoroplastics and fluoroeslastomers) are still in common use. One example is Teflon, which is a very common component of non-stick cookware.

The Use of Fluorine in Pharmaceuticals

One increasingly widespread application of specialty fluorochemicals is in the pharmaceutical industry, in which the ability of fluorine to improve the existing properties of other chemicals makes it enormously useful.

Simply by adding fluorine, the pharmacological properties of a drug can be improved in potency quite significantly, allowing for the use of lower doses to achieve the same effect as was previously gained.

Aside from this highly desirable property, another important advantage of adding fluorine to pharmaceuticals is that the shape of the resulting fluorochemical is largely unchanged. This is particularly important because the bioactivity of many drugs is highly dependent on the shape of the chemical compound.

One drawback, however, is the fact that the addition of fluorine improves the stability of pharmaceuticals. While this is an enormous advantage for most other specialty fluorochemical applications, in the pharmaceutical industry this is not always the case, because in some cases, improving the stability of a drug can reduce its metabolic degradation.

Currently, up to 50% of all modern pharmaceuticals contain fluorine. These include anesthetics, antidepressants, antifungals and antibiotics, antacids, cholesterol lowering agents, steroids and other anti-inflammatory agents, and certain types of anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs.

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Solar Photovoltaic And Global Warming

The solar PV is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity using semiconductor panels. It is a very attractive technology, which presents compelling future prospects. The solar PV now suffers from its relatively high cost and low yields (about 10%).

In addition, electricity must either be consumed immediately or stored in batteries or sold on the network. Economically, solar photovoltaic justified in remote locations with high sunlight (African village, mountain hut).

Some countries like Germany and Japan have chosen to heavily subsidize the sector of solar photovoltaic and buy the electricity produced in this way 3 or 4 times more expensive than "normal" price, allowing these facilities to be profitable over a long period (about 20 years). France has not made this choice, which confines the facility uses solar photovoltaic marginal (power remote sites), activists, and prestige.

Solar photovoltaic operation

A PV system connected to the network is completely independent of a facility's electrical system housing. It allows the resale of the entire production to the EDF network.

A photovoltaic system consists of modules, solar, each made up of photovoltaic cells. These generators convert solar energy directly into electricity (DC).

Power is expressed in Watt peak (Wp), a unit that defines the electrical power available at the generator terminals in optimum light conditions.

An inverter converts DC electricity, AC and 220V at 50Hz. This current becomes compatible with the national network and enables to sell the entire electricity to EDF.

Using photovoltaic reduce greenhouse gas emission in atmosphere. As we know that greenhouse gases influences to global warming. It will increase temperature in environment because the heat from the earth can’t flow out to the space. Its greenhouse gases prevent its flow. Global warming will effect on the disaster. For instance, increasing the temperature will melt the polar ice. Therefore, water sea level will increase. Let’s use solar energy to save the earth.

Sunday, September 26, 2010

What Is Earth Science

Earth science

Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the study of the earth and of the universe around it, making it a wide scientific discipline covering all facets of how the earth works. It is a special case in planetary science as the earth is the only known life-bearing planet. Earth Science is also known as the Earth Sciences, Geoscience, and the Geosciences.

There are four major disciplines in earth sciences, namely geography, geology, geophysics and geodesy. These major disciplines use physics, chemistry, biology, chronology and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system.

Let me give you a brief idea about the various disciplines of earth science. Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils


Geography is the study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". Our historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences.

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.

Geodesy, also called geodetics, a branch of earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space.

Well, above is a description about earth science and its' major branches. The study of Earth Science is vital to understand our "Mother Earth" properly and to develop a responsibility for preserving and maintaining the biodiversity and natural habitat.

Monday, August 23, 2010

The history of umbrellas

The umbrella was invented in China. It appeared for the first time in China 3500 years ago. There are several popular legends about the invention of this famous accessory, including the most sent out, concerning Luban. According to the text "Eclats de Jade", the umbrella was invented by the wife of Luban, Yun, who was both very attentive and anxious for her husband who worked hard all the day. According to the folklore, it always rained when Yun brought Luban his daily meal. Therefore Luban built shelters on the way of his wife in order to keep her dry. Then inspired by children who used leafs of lotus to protect them against the rain, Luban contrived the first umbrella creating a bendable structure covered-up with fabrics.

In Ancient China, the umbrella was not only a common daily accessory but it also had a sociological meaning. A the end of the Wei dynasty, the umbrella was used for official ceremonies and rites. It was named the "Luo umbrella". According to the Zuo Zhuan, Jin book, the Luo accessory was the symbol of both the dignity and status, as was the official gown. For instance, the official members of the Han dynasty used green umbrellas and the Emperor of the Song dynasty used red and yellow ones. Emperors and officials used this accessory to show that they protected their nation.

As the umbrella pointed to both the fortune and the honour, it was often used during wedding ceremonies in China. It was also used for opera, song, dance and acrobatic art.

With the increase of exchanges with others countries, umbrellas gradually spread in the whole world. For example, under the Tang dynasty, Japan dispatched nineteen groups of missionaries to learn about the Chinese civilisation. Thus, the technical of umbrellas conception were introduced in Japan. At the middle of the 18th century, English businessman brought back umbrellas after their trip in China, which caused an important "revolution" in the United Kingdom. Nowadays, this famous accessory is indispensable for Great Britain …

Currently, in China, umbrellas may be the most common accessory with bikes. More than 90% are made in this country and then exported all around the world. Chinese use them when it rains as well as sunny days. They have created bikes and motorbikes with a support behind the saddle or on the handlebars, in order to fix their favourite accessory on their vehicles. Thus they can go everywhere whilst being protected against the rain and the harmful sun's rays. You can find in China many different and amazing models of "brollys" as they are used as fashionable accessories for the inhabitants of the country. That is why they provide a wide range of the famous products with many shapes and colours. The most common umbrella in Japan is transparent, made of transparent plastic and you can buy it almost everywhere, in kiosks and supermarkets. The traditional one, named wagasa, is made of bamboo and Washi, a Japanese paper. It is a really beautiful accessory which can be used to protect you against the rain as well as an object of decoration for your house. There are also the wagasa parasols, which are non oil-applied but which are as nice as the other ones and more durable
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Dyshidrosis Treatment: How you Can Help yourself

Dyshidrosis, also known as Dyshidrotic Eczema, is a chronic skin condition which is characterized by small blisters on the hands and feet. The name "Dyshidrosis" comes from the word "dyshidrotic" which means "bad sweating" which was deemed as the cause. Sometimes it is also known as Pompholyx which means "bubble" in Greek referring to the blisters on the skin. In some cases, pmpholx refers to hand dyshidrosis. This skin condition is not contagious to others, but it can cause extreme stress and pain to the sufferers. Not to mention the unsightly nature of the condition can cause social anxiety and low self esteem.

Till today, the definite cause of Dyshidrosis is unknown. It is often associated with other skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, bacterial infection or excessive stress. However, there are several probable factors which can aggravate the condition:

- Nickel allergy may be a significant contributing factor to dyshidrosis. Tests have shown that dyshidrosis sufferers who are given a low nickel diet reported having less flare ups.

- Coming into contact with allergens may be the cause.

- Metal toxicity such as copper, mercury and nickel

- Other possible factors include aspirin ingestion, oral contraceptives, cigarette smoking, and implanted metals.

Unfortunately, since dyshidrosis is a type of eczema, the most common treatment for dyshidrosis is topical steroids which can bring about harmful long term effects such as skin thinning. Other methods include the use of Hydrogen Peroxide (35% strength) and Potassium Permanganate solution. Both of these can work to a certain extend but the side effects include significant burning and itching.

Therefore,it is recommended that to treat Dyshidrosis, it is necessary to go back to the basics, that is to strenghten the immune system and eliminating toxins from the body. You can check out the various methods to achieve a strong immune system via feeding the body the right food at EczemaFreeNaturally.com

Having the basics taken care of, here are some of the home remedies you can try to get relief for Dyshidrosis:

- Use emollients frequently to prevent cracking and itching. Avoid petroleum jelly as it does not absorb into the skin.

- Try soaking in sea salts or epson salts. Some found relief in soaking in white vinegar.

- Avoid harsh shampoos and body wash. Stick with gentle bath oil. If you are having flare ups, remember to wear gloves when washing hair or bathing.

- Avoid nickel if you are allergic to it. Nickel can present in certain types of foods, jewelry, computer keyboards, dental filling and even bra.

- Avoid stressful situations or learn stress management

- Avoid scratching. I know it is easier said than done. Try wearing unbleached cotton gloves to protect your hands.

- Plantain (Plantago major) infused in olive or other oil can be soothing.

- Wear cotton gloves while reading newspapers, books and magazines. The lead in the ink may be an irritant.

- Avoid hand sanitizing products which contains alcohol. Alcohol is drying and may aggravate the condition.

- Wash affected hands and feet with cool water and apply a moisturizer as soon as possible.

Although dyshidrosis is not life threatening, this skin condition can cause extreme pain and stress to the sufferes. While there is no definite treatment for dyshidrosis, one can aid the healing of this condition by practising a healthy lifestyle. For more information on this, please visit EczemaFreeNaturally.com

Thursday, March 11, 2010

Tips For Buying A Quality Microscope

When buying a microscope there are several things to consider. Though price will always play an important role in a purchase decision, it should not be the first thing that you should look for when buying a microscope. A microscope purchase is a big investment for most people, so you want to get the most out of you money. One common mistake is buying a microscope based on what it looks like in the picture. A microscope may look interesting and modern but is actually constructed very poorly.

One thing that must be decided before going any further is what you are planning to be studying with this microscope. If you want to study things such as blood, bacteria, algae or any smaller specimen you will want to choose a compound microscope. These specimens require a higher power of magnification in order to see all the details. A compound microscope generally has 3 or 4 objective lenses that range in power from 4x to 100x. Providing that you are using a standard 10x eyepiece, this will give you 40x to 1000x magnification. This is the standard in magnification for grades K-college. Some cheaply made microscopes claim to have up to 1200X-1400X magnification. These are microscopes to stay away from.

If you want to study specimens that are larger such as insects, leaves and rocks, you will want to choose a stereo microscope. These specimens require less magnification to see their detail. A stereo microscope has at least two eyepieces and provides a three dimensional image off the specimen you are looking at. Two common forms of stereo microscopes are dual power and zoom magnification. A dual power stereo microscope has two set magnifications, such as 2x and 4x objectives. Providing you are using standard 10x eyepieces, you will get 20x and 40x magnification. A zoom stereo microscope there is a continuous zoom range from its lowest power to its highest power. One such configuration would give you continuous zoom from 10x to 45x.

Now that you have decided what you want to study and which type of microscope is right for you, it is now time to decide on what brand to purchase. There are many sources of microscopes on the internet. One safe rule of thumb is to research several microscope sites and try to find a common brand carried by many companies. Many reputable manufacturers will not sell directly to the public but do have legitimate web sites where they can be contacted. This will allow you to see that the microscope is backed by a real company in case warranty work is ever needed. Many microscopes might meet the same specifications but if you want this instrument to last you will want to choose a reputable microscope manufacturer.

Metal construction, brass gears, approved electrical and glass optics is a must for any microscope.

One way to make sure that you are getting the best quality microscope is to use a reputable supplier. You want to trust that they did their research when they picked the microscopes to be in their product line. Since 1989, Capital Microscope Services, Inc. has done just that. We are committed to providing our customers with quality products at very affordable prices. You can rest assured that every product that we show on our website meets our rigid standards before we ever put them out there for you, the customer to buy. You may find cheaper microscopes out there but we feel that the microscopes we offer will give you the best instrument for your money. If you should have any questions concerning buying a new microscope, please don't hesitate to contact us.
Retrieved from "http://www.articlesbase.com/science-articles/tips-for-buying-a-quality-microscope-1956174.html"

Quran and Science of Meterology

QURAN AND SCIENCE OF METEOROLOGY
Quran Treats the phenonomenon of Rain and Hail
By
Allama Muhammad Yousuf Gabriel
www.oqasa.org
shaukatawan@rocketmail.com

The Quran has claimed not once but twice in most explicit terms to contain all knowledge that concerned humanity. And has challenged the world to bring a chapter like it, when I was asked that Quran was not the book of science, it was only the book of religion. How therefore, the treatment of the subjects like atomic science, the atomic bombs and atomic radiations could be expected in a book of religion. My answer to this was and is that the Quran is a book of a religion indeed, but it is the book of a religion that is perfect and complete and may be expected to provide answer to every question that was concerned with the humanity. If the destruction of the habitations of Sodom and Gomorrah received a mention in it, while these habitations were no larger than a negligible part of a modern city, how then the mention of a destroyer which would not leave so much as a blade of grass unburnt from one end of the world to the other, could be ignored without damaging the claim to universality. The Quran must be expected to give an answer to the question of atomic annihilation of the world. Again it may be asked whether the Quran contains the outcome of the research of modern science of meteorology. The answer to this question is yes it does. Quran shows this in one sign (Ayat) of about forty words. Read the following from the Quran regarding the phenomenon of rain and hail:-
" Hast thou not seen that Allah gently driveth forward the clouds and gathereth them together, and then layeth them in heaps? Thou also seeth the rain which falleth from the midst thereof, and Allah sendeth down from heaven, from mountains wherein there is hail, He striketh therewith whom he pleaseth, and turneth the same from whom He pleaseth, the brightness of His lightening wanteth but little of taking away the sight".
( Quran XXIV - 43 )
" Have you not seen that God drives the clouds, then joins them together and puts them fold on fold. Then you see the rain fall through them; and He sends down hail from the sky where there are mountains of it, and strikes those with it whom. He will, and wards it off from whomsoever He pleaseth. His lightning could snatch away their eyes".
(Quran - An-Nur-43 The Light)
You have read it now, or you have heard it. And if you pen to be a meteorologist, how much of the science of modern meteorology you have discerned in it, so that after we have explained it, you might compare. To most of the readers of the Quran it is merely a matter of common observation which has been mentioned by the Quran ; whether in the translation or in the original Arabic text of the Quran. Let this be remembered, however, that the mysteries are revealed only in the original Arabic text and never in the translations. It is the Arabic text of the Quran that reveals the essence of the modern science of meteorology about the phenomenon of rain and hail. Read the Quran -An Noor-43 )
In the first sight there appears to be no scientific facts of the modern research, but by the grace of Al-mighty Allah there are scientific facts to be revealed to those possessed of knowledge, and sincere in their faith in the Quran. The original Arabic text of the Quran has miracles to reveal. Most complex, intricate and perplexing facts of science and philosophy may be found in the words and mysteries discovered. To a knowledgeable reader the world of the Quran appears like kaleidoscopic world. The words changing their forms and clows and assuming new forms and colours, astonishing and perplexing the poor human intellect. During my forty-year long research in the Quran more than once I went to sleep with satisfaction that I had exhausted the meanings of a certain sign. But next morning to my surprise I saw the same sign blossoming with fresh flowers that had exchanging colours and delightful fragrance.
Let it be remembered that the modern science of meteorology is of recent origin, while the Quran was revealed fourteen centuries ago. If therefore the discoveries of the mo dern meteorology are found in the Quran, there remains no doubt about the divine original of the Quran, and the Quran deserves to assume a unique place among the divine scriptures.
We will now interpret the sign (Ayat) of the Quran in the light of all the latest discoveries of science in the field of meteorology. It is generally observed by the Non-Muslims, that whenever a discovery of science appears, the Muslims prop up the Quran saying, Lo! here is it written in the Quran, why the Muslims cannot find these facts from the Quran before the discovery is declared by science. The answer to this objection is, that firstly the Quran is not the text book of science to teach the people the technique of producing the things that are produced by the science, rather the Quran observes and regulates the entire life of humanity, every aspect of it. Therefore the Quran has its own style of treating the subject of pure science. Secondly, the Quran would not like the appearance of certain things or their wrong use in order to keep the humanity safe from the noxious effects thereof. Therefore the Quran treats such subjects of science in its peculiar manner. For instance the Quran has treated the atomic science, the entire essence of the subject, but has not taught to build the atomic bombs. Thirdly, if the Quran had explained the inventions of science as we see them today and had used the terms as we hear them today, it is not difficult to imagine that the hearers of that time, would have stampeded away thrusting their fingers in their ears, yelling, " How impossible, how nonsensical, away, away to your rational creed, the creed of our fathers". The fate of Islam was thus no hidden secret. And it was a miracle of the Quran, to say a thing comprehensible and appealing to its first hearers, and conceal within the same language that could answer all that was to come in time in any form, scientific, philosophic, economical, social. Yet let it be understood that the corroboration of the Quran and science is a topic fraught with imminent dangers. Science changes while the Quran is constant. Once said, for-ever said. The corroborator therefore must have thorough knowledge of science, to discern the established facts from more theories and hypotheses, and should at the same time have the thorough knowledge of the Quran to its real mind. Otherwise there is a great possibility of wrecking the reputation of the Quran, and making this word of God about of ridicule, unrecking at the same time the doom of the corroborator himself. I have seen many a corroborator that blundered in this field and fell from the cliffs to the vale of ignominy. God save us from such a doom. I myself am a corroborator, but I weigh a thing a hundred times and pass many a sleepless nights before I find courage to pen a single fact or to bring it on record. Yet I pray to Allah, the Merciful to guide me aright in this hazardous field and let me have no personal or other consideration, and forgive any slip of fall. I am obliged to take to this field for no other reason than that it has become the inevitable necessity of these days. Otherwise the early authentic commentators of the Quran have left no point unambiguous.
Now let us revert to our topic in the name of Allah the Benign, the Merciful. Allah says:-
"(Alam Tara). Has thou not seen?" This question was first posed to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) and his contemporary Arabs. Now it could be posed to the meteorologist. This is the marvellous feature of the All-time and eternal Quran.
Then :-
"(Annallaha Yuzji). That is God drives". It is to contradict the view of those who think that the laws of nature work on their own, or that the whole affair of creation is accidental only. Here the God asserts his complete control of the Phenomenon.
Then (Yuzji Sahaban). (Sahab) means a cloud, but the derivatives formed on its root (sahaba) give the meanings as, to drive along, to drag along, to withdraw, to recall, to retract etc. The modern meteorological science on this point says, " Previous to a thunderstorm, the clouds are in great commotion. Great masses being torn asunder, others uniting together. These clouds being electrified, some more some less strongly, act inductively on one another, and if a piece happens to be torn away with more than its fair share of electricity that has been induced into it, it may soar away intensely electrified, several such pieces may unite to form a big cloud".
Then The Quran says:-
" (Thumma Yuallifu Bainahu). That is thereafter affects between the different parts of the cloud a harmony and achieves affinity between them. Generally it is translated as " and gathereth them together". In order to know what sort of harmony and affinity is affected and achieved between the various parts of the cloud, let us read the following from the science of meteorology.
" To achieve the coalescence of the minute spherules of water into fallable rain drops, a proper electrical affinity, between a particle and a particle within the cloud and further, within the cloud and the earth has to be achieved. In the presence of a strong positive charge in the cloud the SPHERULES WOULD TEND TOWARDS SEPARATION, EXCLUDING ANY POSSIBILITY OF THEIR COALESCENCE. A charge of milder sort in the vicinity has been found to be helpful for the desired coalescence for the spherules into rain drops. The necessity of the ELECTRIC POTENTIAL and hence the electricity itself, having thus been established a slight ACIDIFICATION of the cloud water is to be UNDERSTOOD as a means to impart conductivity to the water, which in a state of its purity is a bad conductor of electricity".
Let the great masters of Chemistry read these chemical processes explained by the Quran.
Then the Quran says:-
" (Thumma Yajaluhu rukaaman)". That is then "layeth them in heaps". Let us read what the modern meteorological science says about the heaping up of the cloud. It says:-
" When the vapour in the air is condensed not through contact with cold bodies, but through the cooling of a mass of vapour -ladden air, then a cloud is formed. A cloud consists of fine drops of water. if it be near the ground it is called mist or fog. It would at the outset seem impossible to classify or account for the myriads of forms of the cloud, but when we come to observe and watch them closely, two main types of cloud-forms assert themselves. Those which appear in fillowy well-defined shapes, and those which spread over the heavens in a layer thick or thin, partial or complete. The former of these is called CUMULUS, a Latin word meaning HEAP, the latter STRATUS, a Latin word meaning A LAYER. These names are due to LUKE HORWARD (1802) and have been used by all cloud observers since his time. The meteorological science is of recent origin. It developed within the centuries of this modern age. Luke Horward (1802) first used the Terms CUMULUS and STRATUS".
The Quran has anticipated him by centuries. The word Rukaaman which the Quran has used means exactly the CUMULUS. So far as the Term STRATUS is concerned, the Quran has used it in another sign (verse) about the very same topic. The sign is as follows:
That is : " Allah is He who sendeth the wind so that they raise clouds, and spreadeth them along the sky as pleaseth Him. And forms them in layers, and thou seest the rain downpouring from within them".
( Quran XXX - 48 )
" It is God who sends the breezes that raise clouds, then spreads them over the sky as He please, fold on fold, then you see the drops of rain issue from between them. When He sends it down to those of His creatures as He will, they are filled with joy".
(Quran The Romans, 48)
The actual word is (Kisafan) which means to lay in layers, to stratify, to lay layer upon layer. It is exactly the term STRATUS, the term of Luke Horward. Though generally it is translated as, "causeth them to break". It is surprising to note, that the Quran anticipated Luke Horward (1802) by centuries. The words of the Quran thus are not only scientific but also prophetic.
Then the Quran says:-
(Fataral Wadaqa Yakhruju min khilaalihi). That is : Thou seest the rain which falleth from the midst thereof. Actual word is (Min Khilaalihi), that is the rain is pouring from the (khilal) of the cloud. The meaning of this word is pin, skewer, spit. The root of this word is (khallala) which means to acetify. "Khal" means vinegar. Now the necessity of the acidification of the cloud water we have already narrated in the previous pages. A charge of milder sort is essential to achieve the coalescence of the spherules. The charge necessitates electricity. But pure water is a bad conductor of electricity. It is necessary therefore to acetify the water to endue water with the quality of conductivity. Thus the role of the word (khilal ) in the phenomenon becomes clear, to mean that no (khilal) meant no rain, and therefore no life on earth.
The Quran further says:-
(wa yunazzilu min assamaae min jibaalin fiha min bardin). That is:- " And Allah sendeth down from heaven, from mountains wherein there is hail". First imagine a cloud like a mountain of hail. How beautiful is the mountain of white pearls and how exact but novel is the simile. But the point which attracts our attention is hidden in the word (jibaal) which means mountains. The root of this word is (jabala) which means to kneed. Perhaps the most astonishing discovery of the modern meteorological science is that no mist nor fog could be formed, unless there were present in the vapour-laden air particles of dust or sand to act as the nucleus for the spherules of water that constitute the fog. This has been proved, since air filtered through cotton wool, has no tendency towards fog formation. The hail pellets likewise have been found to have been built around a spec of dust acting as their Nucleus, a process in distinction from that of the formation of snow. Now let us see the word (jibaal) that is mountains used by the Quran. The word Jibaal has been derived from the root-verb (jabala) which means to kneed. Then imagine a cloud of rain or of hail, wherein every spherule has a spec of dust or sand though invisible to naked eye. Certainly the cloud appears like a mountain made of dust particles kneeded with water. Remarkable also is the role of mountains in the formation of rain.
Now in the end it may be asked that the Quran in this phenomenon has made no mention of the great role played by the air. It is the air that carries the moisture, and it is the air that wafts the clouds. without the air no rain would have been possible. The question takes our thought to another sign (Ayat) of the Quran which is identical with the sign which we are discussing, and has mentioned the role of air. In the previous pages we have alluded to sing just read:-
(Quran-Alarum -48)
(Allah-u-lazi yursilu-arriaha fatuseeru sahaban). That is, " He is Allah who sendeth the winds, so that they raise clouds".
( Quran XXX-48 )
The Quran's challenge, "Bring ye a chapter like unto it" stands good for every age, including this age of science. The knowledge of science shown by the Qruan is such that no scientist will ever think of being an equal to or like the Quran, the amazing word of Allah, the God of the worlds.
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Thursday, January 7, 2010

Using A Smoker

Today's tip on learning about smokers and smoker recipes is about different fuel sources. Your options are propane, electric, and my personal favorite, charcoal or wood chips. I feel that when smoking meat for long periods of time, the most flavors are achieved by using charcoal. Once it gets started, it can burn steadily and reliably for a long time. The key is getting the grill up to temp before putting on any meats or foods.

When picking out a charcoal, I like to use a natural one with no chemical additives. These can be found as briquettes or lump charcoal. Lump charcoal is simply partially burned wood, where briquettes are denser, and compacted into squares. Usually lump charcoal is easier to find without chemical additives than the briquettes. One thing to consider is that lump charcoal will burn faster as it is not as dense as the traditional briquette type of charcoal.

You can start the charcoal with newspaper or a little bit of lighter fluid; just make sure to let the lighter fluid burn off completely before cooking. Using a charcoal starter works well. When using charcoal, every 30 minutes or so, I like to throw in some flavoring chips. This adds a different flavor depending on the type of wood used. The most common ones are mesquite, hickory, apple wood, cherry wood, and pecan wood. You can soak them in water first so it takes longer to burn them, or just throw them in dry. I hope these were a few helpful tips about how to use a smoker. Stay tuned for more articles about using a smoker.

There is a lot to learn about grilling, but like anything worth doing and worth doing great, discovering smoker recipes is a trade that takes time to learn. Just don't expect to be a pro the first time using your smoker recipes. Whether you want to learn how to bbq ribs, create a super pork roast, or how to smoke fish, it all starts with the basics of grilling and bbq. You can use an electric smoker, a gas smoker, a wood smoker, or a charcoal smoker. All types have different uses and upsides. Electric is easy to maintain an even temperature through the length of the cooking. It should be a good choice if you are a beginner. But it does not put as much flavor into the meat as charcoal. These are all things to consider when using a smoker grill. Don't forget about size either. If you will be cooking for a large group, you will need something much larger than if just cooking for yourself. Don't forget to try out different models from friends or relative before purchasing to see what works best for you. Look at different ones from the nearby stores. Learning how to use a smoker should be a fun experience. The first time you light your new smoker, make sure the temperature is stable before putting on the meat. This will cook more easily, and without as much trouble as starting with a cold grill.

About the Author:
Visit this site for delicious smoker recipes. Or visit this site for delicious smoker recipes.

Article Source: ArticlesBase.com - Using A Smoker



Today's tip on learning about smokers and smoker recipes is about different fuel sources. Your options are propane, electric, and my personal favorite, charcoal or wood chips. I feel that when smoking meat for long periods of time, the most flavors are achieved by using charcoal. Once it gets started, it can burn steadily and reliably for a long time. The key is getting the grill up to temp before putting on any meats or foods.

When picking out a charcoal, I like to use a natural one with no chemical additives. These can be found as briquettes or lump charcoal. Lump charcoal is simply partially burned wood, where briquettes are denser, and compacted into squares. Usually lump charcoal is easier to find without chemical additives than the briquettes. One thing to consider is that lump charcoal will burn faster as it is not as dense as the traditional briquette type of charcoal.

You can start the charcoal with newspaper or a little bit of lighter fluid; just make sure to let the lighter fluid burn off completely before cooking. Using a charcoal starter works well. When using charcoal, every 30 minutes or so, I like to throw in some flavoring chips. This adds a different flavor depending on the type of wood used. The most common ones are mesquite, hickory, apple wood, cherry wood, and pecan wood. You can soak them in water first so it takes longer to burn them, or just throw them in dry. I hope these were a few helpful tips about how to use a smoker. Stay tuned for more articles about using a smoker.

There is a lot to learn about grilling, but like anything worth doing and worth doing great, discovering smoker recipes is a trade that takes time to learn. Just don't expect to be a pro the first time using your smoker recipes. Whether you want to learn how to bbq ribs, create a super pork roast, or how to smoke fish, it all starts with the basics of grilling and bbq. You can use an electric smoker, a gas smoker, a wood smoker, or a charcoal smoker. All types have different uses and upsides. Electric is easy to maintain an even temperature through the length of the cooking. It should be a good choice if you are a beginner. But it does not put as much flavor into the meat as charcoal. These are all things to consider when using a smoker grill. Don't forget about size either. If you will be cooking for a large group, you will need something much larger than if just cooking for yourself. Don't forget to try out different models from friends or relative before purchasing to see what works best for you. Look at different ones from the nearby stores. Learning how to use a smoker should be a fun experience. The first time you light your new smoker, make sure the temperature is stable before putting on the meat. This will cook more easily, and without as much trouble as starting with a cold grill.
...............................

About the Author:
Visit this site for delicious smoker recipes. Or visit this site for delicious smoker recipes.

Article Source: ArticlesBase.com - Using A Smoker

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

How Can I Be Successful in This Life?

How do you know if you’re successful? How does one measure success? More importantly, will you ever become successful in life? Before you start to ponder such deep questions you must first answer the question: what is success? You don’t have to define success in general terms; you must define it by your own terms. Only you know what success is, because only you can be satisfied with the results.

Success generally means that you achieve all of the goals you set for yourself, which gives you a sense of completion and happiness. In order to be successful you must first have aims and then set goals that will take you to these aims. The sense of accomplishment that you feel after a lifetime of success is incomparable!

How can you find success in life? Here are four tips to finding success and happiness in your personal and professional life.

1. Aim high.

Do not be afraid to dream and to aim higher than is typical. While you don’t want to wish for unnatural success (the richest man in the world, for example) there is nothing wrong with dreaming about wealth, power and fame. These are achievable, but only if you are willing to aim that high.

2. Learn from your mistakes.

If you are able to learn from your mistakes then you always have the advantage over your competitors. Don’t just learn from your mistakes but also learn from the mistakes that others make. Determine how you can improve upon a competitor’s business or even his/her personality. Having this analytical perspective will keep you that much more successful than the average dreamer.

3. Be yourself and believe in yourself.

Acknowledge who you are and try and find a niche for you in today’s commercial world. You can also apply this lesson to your personal life. Experience will teach you the kind of person you are. Be your own vision of success rather than have someone else dictate it for you.

4. Expect great things for yourself.

This doesn’t necessarily mean you have to be “great”, but you should always want to accomplish great things that help others. Do not be content to be just average if you secretly dream of having more. If you expect more of yourself then you can push yourself to greater heights.

Remember these tips as you plan your future. Remember that winners only need two things: definite goals and a burning desire to achieve them!
Albert Mensah
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Monday, January 4, 2010

All About Menstrual Migraine

When it comes to migraines, women are three times more prone to getting them than men. Around 20% of women of childbearing age suffer from hormone-related headaches like menstrual migraine or PMS headache, with 70% of these women suffering from menstrual migraine.

While migraine symptoms differ from one person to the next, they generally include the following:

- Severe headache
- Feeling sick
- Being sick
- Sensitivity to light

While there seems to be no apparent reason for migraines to suddenly occur in some migraine sufferers, there could be triggers for others. If you suffer from migraine, you will eventually find out what your particular triggers are over time and you can make a conscious effort to avoid those triggers.

In the case of a menstrual migraine, a drop in estrogen levels appears to be the trigger. This drop in estrogen level happens right before a period starts. Although it is not low levels of estrogen that causes a migraine headache, it is the change in estrogen levels that trigger the it.

Types of Menstrual Migraine

You are suffering from menstrual migraine if your headaches starts two or three days after your period began and if the headaches last during your perid or for the entire duration.

Two patterns seem to be associated with menstrual migraine:

1. Menstrual Associated Migraine is the most common type of migraine, affecting six in ten women migraine sufferers. It usually occurs before and after periods, as well as other times of the month.

2. Pure Menstrual Migraine affects one in seven women migraine sufferers. This type of migraine only happens during a period.

Identifying Menstrual Migraine

In some cases, it might only be a coincidence if you experience a migraine at the same time as you are having your period. In order for your doctor to give a correct diagnosis, he or she may ask you to keep a record of your migraines for several months. Doing so will help your doctor identify if there is some kind of pattern that exists whenever you have your period and experience migraines.

Treatment of Menstrual Migraines

Painkillers and medication for preventing nausea and vomiting, plus anti-inflammatory agents that are usually for any other type of migraine are used for the treatment of menstrual migraines.

Prevention

Because of menstrual migraines, some women are unable to work; they are unable to participate in leisurely activities and a variety of general activities every month. While treatment can certainly help, steps on actually preventing the menstrual migraines should be taken.

Since change in estrogen levels triggers menstrual migraines, a solution is the use of estrogen skin patches. Estrogen skin patches are a form of hormone replacement therapy. An estrogen patch is placed on the skin three days before the period begins and remains on the skin for one week. Women who do not like using estrogen patches could use estrogen gel instead. Estrogen gen is applied onto the skin every day for seven days.

Using Contraceptive Pills

While combined contraceptive pills can be used to control migraines, it is important that you do not attempt this one on your own, as it might result in an unwanted pregnancy. It is always a good idea to consult a doctor for advice on this kind of treatment.

- You can prevent menstrual migraines by preventing the period itself. You can do this by switching to a contraceptive that has lower progestogen content.

- The pill should be taken for three packets in a row, which is about nine weeks, then allot seven days where you don’t take any pill at all. This will keep your estrogen level constant, resulting in less bleeds and less frequent migraines. If you get a migraine during each of those seven days where you don't take anything, you can take estrogen supplements instead.

For more help on the prevention, treatment and remedies for migraines please see the Complete Guide To Migraine Headaches.

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Article Copyright By Author. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

Making House Heaters Work for You: Some Energy-Saving Tips

House heaters can be powered by different sources of energy: wood fuel, natural gas fuel, electricity, and the sun. Natural fireplaces that make use of logs have been replaced with natural gas to prevent suffocating fumes from getting trapped in the room. With the increasing cost of energy consumptions especially with the increasing prize of electricity and gas, people are finding ways on how to save on both energy and money.

Here are some tips on how to save energy with your house heater.

1. Check if the rooms/house is/are sufficiently insulated.

The house itself should have proper insulation. Check if there are holes and gaps between window and door hinges. If your house has many glass windows, heavy curtains drawn at night can help conserve heat. Leaks between windows and door hinges can easily cool a room by allowing cold air to enter. Holes in walls can also bring the temperature down. Bare, concrete walls are cold and can easily draw out the warmth away from any warm body that comes into contact with it. Carpets, as well as curtains help insulate rooms. Wooden panels or carpeted walls can also help warm the room. These though are costly so if the family cannot afford them, at least make sure that the windows and door hinges do not have gaps, and that the walls do not have holes where air can easily escape the house, or enter the house from the outside.


2. Check the status of your house heater.

Most house heaters are powered by natural gas. Natural gas heaters make use of natural gas, an odorless, tasteless, and colorless gas that is lighter than air. Natural gas heaters have pipelines that go through the wall of the house to find their way into your house’s furnaces. Make sure that the pipes do not have leaks for the family’s safety and to save energy. A simple way to test for leaks is to pour water on the pipes. If there is a leak, bubbles will form. If the pipelines are old and rusted, have them replaces. Also, check if your furnaces are also in order: the vents should not be blocked to allow fumes to escape from the room. Consider annual maintenance check-ups if you want to avoid expensive repairs and replacements.

If your house heater makes used of electricity, make sure that the wirings are not worn o. Look for signs of rusting and other physical damage. Clean the heater regularly like twice a year to make sure that every thing is in order. If the house heater has been working beyond the prescribed number of years, consider changing the unit. Older heaters eventually become less-efficient with wear and tear.

3. Consider newer model/units of house heaters.

There are more energy-saving house heater equipments, whether solar or electricity powered, available in the market. Consider buying one to replace an old existing home heating system. These heaters have been engineered to give maximum performance with the least energy consumption possible relative to their forerunners.

The following are some of the energy-saving house heaters in the market today.

a. Electrical-powered

Electrical-powered house heaters provide the advantage of safety (relatively safer than natural gas and wood fuel), cleanliness (no bad fumes and debris from burning), and versatility (can be programmed to adjust the temperature and the length of time it will be used), and flexibility (portable) over other house heaters. Moreover, no pipelines are required thus, easy installation.

Electrical house heaters may come in the form of a portable unit (e.g. Air King 8540 Ceramic Oscillating Space Heater) similar to a portable air-conditioning unit like the. They can also be in the form of heat convector panels (e.g. Elnur Panel by Elnur), and electric thermal radiators.

b. Solar-powered

Engineers and consumers are gradually looking into harnessing the energy from the sun to run appliances, warm water, and warm the house. Solar-collecting panels placed on the roof where maximum sunlight is absorbed, makes use of silicon tiles to collect heat from the sun. Solar air heaters (e.g. Ra240 Solarmax Solar Air Heater and Solar Max 240 Solar Space Heating Unit by Cansolair) provide the advantage of being a cleaner source of energy than electricity, more safe since the possibility of fires due to electrical shorting is eliminated and there are no fumes generated unlike natural-gas heaters. Although the initial cash-out is definitely higher than that of electrical and natural-gas heaters, the household is able save up on electricity in the long run thus monthly electrical bills eventually go down.

(c) 2006 All Rights Reserved This article may be republished as long as this resource box is included. http://MyHomeEnergySavings.com and
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